Sutra 7. || Pratyakshanumanagamah Pramanani ||
Pratyaksha = direct perception
Anumana = assumption
Agama = holy scriptures
Pramanani = valid source of right knowledge
“Sources of knowledge are direct perception, assumption out of experience and scriptures (reliable source)”
Sage Patanjali explains that we gather knowledge through three sources, these sources are direct perception which is seeing something by yourself or by coming in direct contact with something, for example you see the smoke you believe there is smoke, then you assume there must be fire because in your past experience you have seen that fire causes smoke. Sometimes there is knowledge is without direct perception and without assumption, we know something because we have read or heard it by a reliable source, for example a child drinks the milk and knows that the milk has come from a cow, though he has not seen the cow giving milk he believes that because his mother tell him so and in this case his mother is a reliable source, he trusts his mother.
Now direct perception means direct contact, or self experience. Jesus also said : “Someone else’s truth can not be your truth until you experience it yourselves”. Similarly assumption without prior experience is plain assumption, it can be based on ego, fear or desire. So one should only assume if he has prior experience through direct contact before.
Knowledge from scriptures or an unverified source can be dangerous. This kind of knowledge should only be considered true if the scripture or the source has been proved reliable by personal experience.
Thus a wise man does not believes anything unless the information is from personal experience, assumption based on prior experience or a reliable source.
Yogi Ram teaches Yoga teacher training in India at Arhanta Yoga Ashram.
Sutra 6. || Pramana Viparyaya Vikalpa Nidra Smrtayah ||
Pramana = right knowledge
Vikalpa= verbal delusions
Smritayah = memory
Here sage Patanjali names the five movements of mind which create attachement or pain.
The detailed description of these movements is given in upcoming sutras.
Sutra 5. Vrittayah Panchatayyah Klishta Aklishtah
Vrittayah – movements of mind
Panchatayyaha – Five kinds
Klishta – painful
Aklishtah – painless
Five kinds of movements of mind which are either painful or painless.
Here Patanjali speaks about classification of the movements of mind. He says that there are five kinds of movements which either bring us pain or do not disturb our peace. (more…)
Sutra 4. Vritti Sarupyam Itratra
Vritti – Movements of mind
Sarupyam – with its forms
Itratra – other times
Movements of mind let the self distract with its form at the other times (When it is not in balance).
In this sutra Patanjali continues to emphasize how an attached mind can not see the true nature of the self . (more…)
Sutra 3. Tada Drishthuhu Swarupeavasthanam
Tada = then
Drishthuhu = the observer
Swarupe = own nature
Avasthanam = the state
Then the observer sees the state of its own nature
Here Patanjali explains that after a diligent yoga practice the practitioner is able to see its true nature. (more…)
Sutra 2. Yogah Chitta Vritti Nirodhaha
Yogah = Yoga
Chitta = Mind
Vritti = Movements
Nirodaha = stops
Yoga stops the movements of the mind
This is an important sutra. Here Patanjali explains the goal of the practice of Yoga. Patanjali says that steady practice of Yoga results in control over the movements of the mind. (more…)
Sutra 1. Atha Yoganushasanam
Atha = Now
Yoga = Yoga
Anushasanam = Order / Discipline
Now the order of Yoga practice is set,
Being the first sutra, here Patanjali speaks of the right order of Yoga Practice which is about to begin. It is of great importance that the order of prinicples is correct before a student starts to practice them.
Unity and Diversity among Yogis
The Jainism was also known as Shraman Dharma (austerity) and Nirgranth (detachment) Dharma. It is not an offshoot of any other religion but is an independent religion recognized by these various names during different time periods. Propounders of Jainism in ancient times were also knows as:
Shraman (Monk) : One who believes in equality of all living beings, practices Non-Violence, and elevates one’s Soul by self-effort.
Yoga consists of 8 parts also known as Ashtanga Yoga ( Eight limbs of Raja Yoga):
1. Non – Possessiveness (Aparigarha)
Balancing our needs and desires, while staying detached from possessions
This is one of the three core practices. It asks for minimizing accumulation of possessions and personal enjoyment. The “want and desires” must be reduced and kept in check as much as possible in thoughts, words, and actions. With the limited resources on this planet, we must be aware of the consequences of our possessiveness. Unchecked possessiveness can lead to great direct harm to oneself, family, society, and the environment.
Relation to Non-Violence : A person obsessed with hoarding purchasing and consuming may turn to laying, cheating, stealing, and violence to satisfy this habit.
Mantras are an essential part of Bhakti Yoga. Namokar Mantrra is an ancient and very powerful mantra.
Namo Arihantanam – I bow to Arihantas.
I bow to the Arihantas (Perfect Human Souls) because they have achieved absolute truth and devote themselves to the uplifting of life on earth. these perfect souls have reached enlightenment by overcoming inner enemies and weakness, have attained infinite knowledge, infinite bliss, and showed us the path that brings an end to the cycle of birth and death.
Namo Sidhanam – I bow to siddhas I bow to the Siddhas (Liberated Souls) because they possess infinite perception, knowledge, and bless. Siddhas have attained the state of perfection and immortality by liberating themselves of all Karmas.